Romantic criticism ignores rules whether of Aristotle or Horace or of the French and emphasises that works of literature are to be judged on the basis of the impression they produce, and not with reference to any rules. The poets of German romanticism were strongly influenced by Schiller, and he ranks as one of the founders of modern..... Click the link for more information. In this way, Hazlitt allied himself with the cultural marketplace in order to fend off the larger counterrevolution that had been launched in England since the coming of The Anti-Jacobin (1797-98) and Godwin’s abortive effort to remake a progressive British intelligentsia in those critical years. For the latter, politics became one thing, and aesthetics another. Early LifeWhittier received a scanty education but read widely...... Click the link for more information. Here Godwin grasped earlier conservative arguments for the novel’s self-conscious removal from historical truth or progressive political aims as a new opportunity for progressive discourse. Categories: Literary Criticism, Literary Theory, Poetry. They viewed man as a miniature universe, a microcosm. . Characteristic of both Byron and Shelley, whose creative work is permeated with moods of struggle and protest, are political enthusiasm, a sharply negative attitude toward the existing social structure, sympathy for the oppressed and unfortunate, advocacy of the rights of the individual, and a passionate yearning for the future. Happy romantic movies and plays help people feel optimistic that someday they will also find true love. When Literature fell off from the Professions; 3. Romantic elements were often accompanied by a striving for effect, as in salon music; this was also evident in the work of minor composers. Melody became more individualized, more clearly defined, more characteristic, more internally changeable, and more responsive to the most subtle changes in the state of the soul. In the only materialist conclusion drawn by a Romantic critical thinker, Godwin averted that quasi-theological outcome by referring both historiography and novel-writing to the unfinished narratives of natural history being told by modern English science. , and particularly GoetheGoethe, Johann Wolfgang von, 1749–1832, German poet, dramatist, novelist, and scientist, b. Frankfurt. in Italy, and Aleksandr PushkinPushkin, Aleksandr Sergeyevich, 1799–1837, Russian poet and prose writer, among the foremost figures in Russian literature. For the romantics, music, as the embodiment of the infinite dynamics of inner experiences, was the expression of the essence of art. In Literary Criticism, there is an idea that believes that Archetypes make up literature’s meaning. The characteristic features of romanticism reappeared in the neoromantic tendencies of postimpressionism. and MelvilleMelville, Herman,1819–91, American author, b. Learn more. In 1830 his Symphonie fantastique was first performed in Paris, marking a bold new development in program music...... Click the link for more information. His father was a general under Napoleon. Irony, humor, and even the grotesque are much more broadly represented in romantic than in Viennese classical music, and national patriotic and heroic liberation themes are much more intense (for example, works by Chopin, Liszt, and Berlioz). It is one of the great ages of criticism; but if we are looking for a general consensus about the true aims and procedures of art, then I suppose that ‘Romantic Literary Criticism’ doesn't really exist, not even in the baggy way that, say, ‘deconstructive criticism’ or ‘The New Criticism’ does. and Alessandro ManzoniManzoni, Alessandro, 1785–1873, Italian novelist and poet. R. J. He received piano lessons from his mother and later studied at the Leipzig Conservatory. Assuming a universal character, this cosmic pessimism was accompanied by hopelessness, despair, and Weltschmerz—the “sickness of the age,” which was characteristic of heroes created by F. R. de Chateaubriand, A. de Musset, Byron, A. de Vigny, A. de Lamartine, G. Leopardi, and H. Heine, for example. Sites. .. (1798); Anna Barbauld, “On the Origin and Progress of Novel-Writing,” British Novelists (ed. Expressive means were fundamentally revitalized by the romantics. How would you want people to judge you - based off what they've previously heard about you, or your words and actions as you interact with them? The high moments in the arts in the West have also been high tides in critical thinking. In instrumental music the symphony, the chamber ensemble, and the sonata for piano or other solo instrument remained the definitive genres, but they were internally transformed. Such canon-shaping, which today appears to us laden with claims to institutional authority, was important to Romantic liberals such as Hazlitt as a guarantee against the arbitrary authority of European monarchs and stateempowered institutions. Trends toward musical “painting” were more clearly expressed in various forms of instrumental works. The Neural Sublime: Cognitive Theories and Romantic Texts, Milnes, Tim and Kerry Sinanan, eds. The overview concludes with an introduction to Schleiermacher's general hermeneutics in the Romantic period. Romantic literary criticism is represented by Mme de Staël’s treatises, Hugo’s theoretical pronouncements, and studies and articles by Sainte-Beuve, the originator of the biographical method. M. H. Abrams, The Mirror and the Lamp (1953); John Barrell, The Political Theory of Painting from Reynolds to Hazlitt: “The Body of the Public” (1986); Thomas Bonnell, “Bookselling and Canon-Making: The Trade Rivalry over the English Poets, 1776-1783,” Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture 19 (1989); Marilyn Butler and Mark Philp, “Introduction,” Collected Writings of William Godwin (7 vols., 1991); Terry Eagleton, The Ideology of the Aesthetic (1990); Paul Hamilton, Coleridge’s Poetics (1983); John Kinnaird, William Hazlitt: Critic of Power (1978); Jon Klancher, “Transmission Failure,” Theoretical Issues in Literary History (ed. Whittier was a pioneer in regional literature as well as a crusader for many humanitarian causes. P. P. Howe, 21 vols., 1930-34); Francis Jeffrey, Contributions to the ‘Edinburgh Review’ (4 vols., 1854); T. J. Mathias, The Pursuits of Literature: A Satirical Poem in Four Dialogues with Notes (1797-98, reprint, 1808); Friedrich Schiller, On the Aesthetic Education of Man (ed. Like romantic writers, romantic musicians were characterized by an interest in the past and in distant, exotic countries; by love for nature; and by a deference to folk art. The possibilities of the poetic word were expanded by the use of multiple meanings, association, and terse metaphors, as well as by innovations in versification, meter, and rhythm. In the representational arts romanticism was most clearly expressed in painting and the graphic arts. A. de Vigny wrote: “Insofar as humanity moves on, it approaches that goal, the explanation for which must be sought beyond the visible.” In romanticism the awareness of a disparity between the ideal and the real, which was characteristic of previous periods, attained an unusual sharpness and tension, accounting for the essence of the “romantic duality.” The creative work of certain romantics, including the poets of the Lake School, Chateaubriand, and V. A. Zhukovskii, was pervaded by the concept that life is ruled by inaccessible, enigmatic forces, and that it is necessary to submit to destiny. Among the principal features of romantic art are a proclivity for the intuitive and the unconscious and an intense interest in the secret stirrings of the soul and its “darker” aspects, consuming passions, and strong, vivid feelings. American romantics, and especially early representatives such as W. Irving, Cooper, and W. C. Bryant, were closer to Enlightenment traditions than their European counterparts. This perspective became the paradoxical foundation of the Romantic theorist’s claim for “Culture,” an attempt to reinstitute the shattered universals by means of literature, symbol, the aesthetic, and reimaginations of mind and self (Abrams; Williams). The members of the Düsseldorf school, including A. Rethel, W. von Schadow, C. F. Sohn, and T. Hildebrandt, were, to a certain degree, associated with romanticism. , the Swiss-English Henry FuseliFuseli, Henry, 1741–1825, Anglo-Swiss painter and draftsman, b. Zürich. James Engell and W. Jackson Bate, 2 vols., 1983), Collected Letters, vol. They were concerned with attaining a musical, picturesque quality in literature, and they boldly combined the high and the low, the tragic and the comic, the ordinary and the unusual. In each country a national form of romantic music developed, and in some countries, diverse romantic trends took shape, such as the Leipzig and Weimar schools in Germany. However, under the specific national and historical conditions of various countries, the ideas of the German romantics often received specific interpretations and acquired other, contradictory meanings. Early Life and WorksAfter an apprenticeship in his father's law office Scott was admitted (1792) to the bar...... Click the link for more information. The basic aims of romanticism were various: a return to nature and to belief in the goodness of humanity; the rediscovery of the artist as a supremely individual creator; the development of nationalistic pride; and the exaltation of the senses and emotions over reason and intellect. Writers before Wordsworth used metre in such a way that it was organic and added to the meaning of the poem. Unlike Godwin, Baillie, or even Mathias before him, Wordsworth had in fact broken with political theory as a framework for literary theory, William Hazlitt, who seemed to admire Wordsworth’s demotic poetics in The Spirit of the Age (1825), also suspected the deep ambivalence of Wordsworth’s “levelling Muse.” “The secret of the Jacobin poetry and the anti-Jacobin politics of this writer are the same,” Hazlitt charged in 1816; “his lyrical poetry was a cant of humanity about the commonest people to level the great with the small; and his political poetry is a cant of loyalty to level Bonaparte with kings and hereditary imbecility” (7:144). Hence, Coleridge’s works of political and institutional theory formed essential armatures to the more visibly “literary” theory of the Biographia Literaria (1817) and the literary lectures of 1808-19 (Klancher; Leask). He received his training from his father, who was an organist, music seller, and amateur violinist. As a result of the general orientation toward lyricism in music, the melodious, lyrical principle became more important in the sonata and the symphony. The year 1797-98 was a crucial turning point for British criticism, however; Godwin’s brilliant meditation on the politics of historical romance never saw print in the projected second volume of The Enquirer. all produced works in the romantic vein. , ShelleyShelley, Percy Bysshe, 1792–1822, English poet, b. Horsham, Sussex. Nevertheless, neoromanticism was closely linked with romanticism, not so much by the themes, motifs, specific treatment, and formal structure of works as by a frame of mind, common poetic principles, the rejection of everything ordinary and prosaic, the “duality” of the reflecting creative consciousness, the turn to the irrational and the extrasensory, a proclivity for the grotesque and the fantastic, the revival of an artistic form oriented toward the primacy of the musical principle, and a tendency toward synthesizing all the arts. Read 3 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Poets such as PoePoe, Edgar Allan,1809–49, American poet, short-story writer, and critic, b. Boston. English neoromanticism was opposed to both symbolism and naturalism. . This project was sponsored by MHRD, New Delhi under NMEICT (Sakshat) initiatives for eContent development. In music, the romantic school emerged during the 1820’s and reached the peak of its development in the last decades of the 19th century, a period referred to as the neoromantic. Human feelings were also echoed in the romantic landscape, which emphasized the power of the elements. Elizabeth M. Wilkinson and L. A. Willoughby, 1967); Percy Bysshe Shelley, “A Defence of Poetry,” Shelley’s Poetry and Prose: Authoritative Texts, Criticism (ed. to suggest an infinity of human longing, the weltschmerz of his time). This type of creative art is characterized by a proclivity for an intentional conventionality of form, as well as for the fantastic, the grotesque, and the symbolic. Home › Literary Criticism › Romantic Literary Criticism, By Nasrullah Mambrol on December 11, 2020 • ( 1 ). Romanticism also developed unusual features in the literature of some Latin American and Asian countries. It attained its fullest development in the works of German composers. M. Iur’ev, A. Mysticism and a complex allegorical quality, which were sometimes present in romanticism, became predominant in symbolism (G. Moreau). and ThoreauThoreau, Henry David, 1817–62, American author, naturalist, social activist, and philosopher, b. Concord, Mass., grad. Defending the unlimited freedom of creative art and its liberation from academic canons, the romantics strove to imbue their images with rebellious passion and heroic stature and to re-create all of nature’s unexpected, unique manifestations in an intensely expressive, turbulent artistic form. , and SibeliusSibelius, Jean Julius Christian, 1865–1957, Finnish composer. p. cm. , notably in the works of EmersonEmerson, Ralph Waldo, 1803–82, American poet and essayist, b. Boston. He believed that he was correct in juxtaposing his own freedom to everything that exists and in asking not “what is” but “what is possible.”. He acquired his musical training from his grandfather and father, and began composing religious and secular music in his childhood. 2. Thus the etymological approach to the meaning of Romanticism ends in an impasse. They contrasted lowly material existence with powerful passions (the romantic conception of love) and the life of the spirit, particularly its higher spheres—religion, art, and philosophy. Rather than worryin… Baillie, a Scottish playwright and poet, appealed in her “Introductory Discourse” to Plays on the Passions (1798) to an analytic, revisionist mode of tragedy that would reconstruct the tragic, “tyrannical passions” from the little, unremembered gestures of everyday life. His Lectures on the English Poets as well as his lectures on the English comic writers or the characters of Shakespeare’s plays can be read as intricate commentaries on an emerging British literary canon selected and circulated by these economically rather than theologically inspired procedures. These fallings were, so to speak, “revolutions” within the revolution—the larger revolution of capitalist modernity from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century. Literary criticism is the exercise of judgement on works of literature. The romantics passionately defended the artist’s creative freedom and imagination, rejecting aesthetic norms and the rationalistic establishment of rules in art. Isn’t Hamlet by Shakespeare an example of ‘ . Make sure you understand both Romanticism and literary criticism before you get in too deep. 1-2, ed. Nineteenth-century romanticism was characterized by the avoidance of classical forms and rules, emphasis on the emotional and spiritual, representation of the unattainable ideal, nostalgia for the grace of past ages, and a predilection for exotic themes. In France elements of romanticism emerged in lofty, agitated portraits painted by J. L. David during the period of the French Revolution; in early, intensely dramatic paintings and portraits by A. J. Gros; in P.-P. Prud’hon’s works, which are pervaded by dreamy lyricism and sometimes by exalted images; and in the works of A.-L. Giro-det-Trioson and F. Gérard, which are characterized by a contradictory combination of romantic tendencies and academic rules. The Term "Romantic" and Its Derivatives THE terms "romanticism" and "romantic" have been under attack for a long time. It is impressionistic and individualistic, and freedom of inquiry is its keynote. In this way, Baillie’s theory of tragedy was less an attempt to privatize and domesticate formerly public and political controversy than an effort to rethink the mode of dramatic representation as a discourse capable of making explicit the political restaging of private life. Landscapes painted in the first half of the 19th century by the English artists J. Constable and R. Bonington were marked by both originality and a degree of similarity to the French romantic style. Taken in his youth to Paris by his mother in 1805, Manzoni embraced the deism that he was later to discard for an ardent Roman Catholicism. Afterall, the real protaganist of Hamlet is political fixedness. In the case of DelacroixDelacroix, Eugène(Ferdinand-Victor-Eugène Delacroix) , 1798–1863, French painter. Although elements of romanticism are present in the music of BeethovenBeethoven, Ludwig van, 1770–1827, German composer. At first, romantic irony signified the limitations of any point of view, including that of romanticism, if directed only at the “infinite”; the relativity of any historical reality, except that of life and the world as a whole; and the impossibility of comparing empirical reality with the infinite potential of being. Literary criticism (or literary studies) is the study, evaluation, and interpretation of literature.Modern literary criticism is often influenced by literary theory, which is the philosophical discussion of literature's goals and methods. . . For the first time, the romantic theater asserted that the stage experience—the immediacy, truthfulness, and sincerity of performing—is the principal content of the actor’s creative work. Transcendentalism, a special trend in American romanticism represented by R. W. Emerson, H. Thoreau, and Hawthorne, criticized industrialization and urbanization and proclaimed a cult of nature and the simple life. Coleridge emphasized the importance of the poet's imagination and discounted adherence to arbitrary literary rules. , Richard StraussStrauss, Richard, 1864–1949, German composer. J. M. W. Turner’s landscapes were characterized by romantic imagination and a search for new expressive means, some of which verged on impressionism. East Prussia. Most of his life was spent in Italy. Stéphane Mallarmé and French Symbolism Romantic Literary Criticism English Poetry in the Sixteenth Century ). Its socioideological foundation consisted in a disillusionment with bourgeois civilization and with social, industrial, political, and scientific progress, which had introduced new contradictions and antagonisms and had resulted in fragmentation, leveling, and the spiritual devastation of the individual. Romance is a natural human emotion. Thus, Hamlet is a literary-political work of its era admonishing rebellion. , Alfred de MussetMusset, Alfred de(Louis Charles Alfred de Musset) , 1810–57, French romantic poet, dramatist, and fiction writer. Romantic: A fictional mode in which the chief characters live in a I world of marvels (naive romance), or in which the mood is elegiac or idyllic and hence less subject to social criticism than in the mimetic modes. Every human has the capability of evaluating things around him. The French term romantisme was derived from the Spanish romance (the medieval term for a genre of Spanish poetry and later, the term for chivalric romances), by way of the English word “romantic.” The latter was rendered in French as romanesque and later, as romantique. , and GriegGrieg, Edvard Hagerup, 1843–1907, Norwegian composer. Romantic Circles is a refereed scholarly Website devoted to the study of Romantic-period literature and culture. Fuseli went (c...... Click the link for more information. . The Origins of the Romantic Literary Theory 113 fied Romantic poetry as having its origin «in the songs of the minne singer» and in the ideals of knighthood and Christianity13. Romantic composers, particularly Liszt, in combining music and literature, created the symphonic poemsymphonic poem,type of orchestral composition created by Liszt, also called tone poem. , who had a mystic feeling for nature and for Germany's medieval past. The interest of romantics in the medieval period as a time of mystery, adventure, and aspiration is evidenced in the Gothic romanceGothic romance,type of novel that flourished in the late 18th and early 19th cent. A descendant of a long line of musicians, he studied piano and organ at his Tuscan birthplace, Lucca, and in 1880 entered the Milan Conservatory...... Click the link for more information. To convey verbal concepts they would, for example, endow inanimate objects with human values (e.g., the wild trees and shimmery moonlight used in the paintings of Caspar David FriedrichFriedrich, Caspar David, 1774–1840, German romantic landscape painter. Rejecting everything that was ordinary and stagnant in the present and focusing only on the climactic, dramatically critical moments in contemporary history, the French romantics found themes and subjects in the historical past, in legends and folklore, in the exotic customs of the Orient, and in the works of Dante, Shakespeare, Byron, and Goethe—the creators of monumental images and powerful characters. Carl Woodring, 2 vols., 1990); William Godwin, The Enquirer: Reflections on Education, Manners, and Literature (1797, reprint, 1965), “Of History and Romance,” appendix D in Caleb Williams, or Things as They Are (ed. , and William CowperCowper, William, 1731–1800, English poet. On the first hand, we will pay attention to the context and the factors that made this separation from previous tendencies possible. Marxist criticism examines a literary work in all its aspects and qualities from a viewpoint combining sociology, aesthetics, and ethics. The credo of French romanticism was set forth by Victor HugoHugo, Victor Marie, Vicomte, 1802–85, French poet, dramatist, and novelist, b. Besançon. This unpublished essay belonged to Godwin’s larger campaign, conducted in The Enquirer (1797), to build a progressive British intelligentsia through literary, educational, and canon-organizing means, since it was becoming clear in the late 1790s that British radical discourse was now failing to be sustained by the community of radical discussion and dissent (Philp). To discover the hidden meaning in the poem so reader can interpret it properly , he is able to unveil the nature of poet itself through his poetry. He studied at the conservatories of Liège and Paris, taking prizes in piano, composition, and organ...... Click the link for more information. All forms of art have their critics. each other, about the process of self-discovery and self-knowledge that comes with developing, committing, and recommitting to a relationship with another person who isn’t you.At one point, he describes the comedy of remarriage as a “comedy of equality.” Pursuits of Happiness is an attempt to do philosophy via film criticism, to think through the connection between language and … Created with unrestrained imagination and tragic ardor, the later works of the Spanish painter Goya express a passionate protest against feudal and national oppression and violence. The latter were not only separate from but a guarantee against the incursions of political and public institutional authority, but they fit wholly into what Hazlitt saw as the diverse mechanisms and protections of the cultural marketplace. After studying theology at Jena and working as a tutor in Zürich and Leipzig, he became interested in Kantian philosophy...... Click the link for more information. Wordsworth’s 1800 preface was written against some of Mathias’s own antagonists—Gothic fiction and its female readerships, the Enlightenment politics of Thomas Paine and Godwin. Le Roncole. In the principal European countries romanticism declined after the 1840’s, giving way to critical realism. … Our unsexed female writers now instruct, or confuse, us and themselves in the labyrinth of politics, or turn us wild with Gallic frenzy.” The surge of political and sexual frenzy animating Mathias’s own critical prose spilled over in pages devoted to denouncing M. G. Lewis’s The Monk—”lewd and systematic seduction”—and Godwin’s Enquirer, which Mathias read as the cultural extension of Political Justice (244-53, 388-97). For Schiller, Wordsworth, and many other European liberals the year of the Terror (1793-94 in the French Revolution) came to signify a crisis in the relation between the political will and the social body, reason and nature, form and sensuousness (Eagleton 113-19). Friedrich SchlegelSchlegel, Friedrich von, 1772–1829, German philosopher, critic, and writer, most prominent of the founders of German romanticism. A. Ki-prenskii. In the early 1800s, then, there emerged not one but at least two very different Romantic aesthetics, both predicated on the common problem of the relation of civil society to the state, yet diverging in their critical methods and cultural visions. Educated in law at Göttingen and Leipzig, he turned to literature, writing Die Griechen und Römer (1797)...... Click the link for more information. and in Thomas De QuinceyDe Quincey, Thomas, 1785–1859, English essayist. , and VerdiVerdi, Giuseppe, 1813–1901, foremost Italian composer of opera, b. In fact, most of the eminent men of letters of the age were critics as well as creative writers. Defining literary criticism:scholarship, authority, and the possession of literary knowledge, 1880–2002/Carol Atherton. Literary theory and criticism is in many ways linked to the humanities, some of which (philosophy, aesthetics) serve as its methodological basis; other branches of the humanities resemble literary theory and criticism in their goals and subject of investigation (folklore studies, art studies) or are related by a general humanistic orientation (history, psychology, sociology). After a trip to Italy and a brief period in the army, Lamartine began to write and achieved immediate success with his first publication, Méditations poétiques (1820)...... Click the link for more information. Romanticism’s conservative tendencies, which sometimes developed into an open cult of monarchy and religion, appeared in the creative art of many French artists, including E. Devéria and A. Scheffer, and influenced J. Bowdoin College, 1825. Most people would want to be judged off their own words and actions. 19th-century Romantic criticism. In his essays on art, for instance, Hazlitt discredited the public English art institutions (all state-sponsored in this period) while enlarging the pleasures of personal aesthetic contemplation (Barrell). Romantic music was characterized by a proclivity for the stereotypical and, simultaneously, for the individual portrait. This website is the outcome of the project undertaken at Department of English, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University (Bhavnagar - Gujarat). History was not subject to “reason” but appeared to be irrational and full of mysteries and unpredictable events. LITERARY CRITICISM (LRC521S) INTRODUCTION ... the Romantic Period and New Critical movements with a view of enabling you to see the extent to ... Etymologically the word criticism is derived from Greek word meaning ‘Judgement’. Romantic artists developed precise techniques in order to produce specific associations in the mind of the viewer. , DvořákDvořák, Antonín, 1841–1904, Czech composer. William BlakeBlake, William,1757–1827, English poet and artist, b. London. The Johns Hopkins Guide to Literary Theory and Criticism. Among the actors and actresses whose artistry was associated with the traditions of lofty, heroic romanticism in Russia were M. N. Ermolova, A. I. Iuzhin, P. Adamian, V. S. Aleksi-Meskhishvili, M. K. Zan’kovetskaia, and G. Arablinskii and later, Iu. He took holy orders but never practiced the priesthood. The general characteristics of romanticism, such as the sense of the disparity between lofty ideals and everyday life, the idealization of phenomena remote from everyday existence, the emphasis on individualism in perceiving the world, and a penchant for theatricalizing motifs, often gave way to a tragic pessimism, an apologia for the Middle Ages, and an extremely subjective coloring and melodramatic pathos of imagery. Befriended and influenced by Schiller, Hölderlin produced, before the onset of insanity at 36, lofty yet subjective poetry, modeled on classic Greek verse...... Click the link for more information. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. West Hills, N.Y. père, Alphonse de LamartineLamartine, Alphonse Marie Louis de, 1790–1869, French poet, novelist, and statesman. Nevertheless, Briullov’s portraits provide the clearest expression of romantic principles in Russian art. , MendelssohnMendelssohn, Felix(Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn) , 1809–47, German composer; grandson of the Jewish philosopher Moses Mendelssohn. Romantic Magazines and Metropolitan Literary Culture, Over 700,000 guest birds visit Pakistan in winter, Alan Richardson. Today, we know this is not generally true. Fox, on the other hand, writes as a disciple of James Mill. Social enthusiasm, accusatory passion, and loyalty to an ideal determined the turbulent emotionality and vivid, dramatic expression of the actors’ art, as well as their impetuous gestures. , Richard, 1864–1949, German composer and J. G. HerderHerder, Johann Gottlieb, 1762–1814, German philosopher critic. 'S isolated castle of Combourg...... Click the link for more information Berlin ( )... Subject of extensive examination in literary criticism goes all the rebels die at the time. 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